XRF ANALYSIS FOR JEWELLERS AND GEM ANALYSES | EN

XRF analysis is a non-destructive technique that takes advantage of the interaction between primary X-rays and material. X ray is also called Röntgen radiation, after the German scientist Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, who discovered it on November 8, 1895. The name X was given because at the time of its discovery nothing was known about this physics phenomenon.

All material is made of atoms, in the middle of each atom is a nucleus that is positively charged due to the presence of protons and neutrons (no charge). Negatively charged electrons revolve around the nucleus in quanta called shells such as in an onion.
 
Their total negative charge compensated the positive charge of the nucleus, making the atom neutral. This can be changed by introducing external energy, such as X-rays. X-rays are light waves with very short wavelengths, with very high energy, which are absorbed as they pass through material, depending on the composition and density of that material.
 
When an atom is hit by an X-ray of sufficient energy (which exceeds the atom's binding energy), an electron in its inner orbital shells is ejected, creating vacancies. An electron from a higher atomic orbit will fall down to the vacancy in this lower energy state. This develops an emission of energy in the form of fluorescence or secondary X-rays, which is equal to the specific difference in energy between the two quantum states of the electron.
 
Secondary X-rays are characteristic of individual elements in the periodic table. When a sample is analysed via XRF, each element present emits these unique X-ray signals in the form of a spectrum. Also referred to as an elementary fingerprint, this spectrum is central to the performance of both EDXRF (Energy Dispersive XRF) and WDXRF (Wavelength dispersive XRF). In EDXRF analysis, the characteristic X-rays of different elements present in a measurement are separated into a full fluorescence energy spectrum using direct excitation or indirect excitation. EDXRF technology is designed to simultaneously process whole groups of elements for qualitative or quantitative analysis and can be used in portable (geologists in prospecting) and laboratory formats.
 
EDXRF in itself is the solutions in different disciplines as varied such as metal and alloy production, petrochemistry, forensics, mineralogy, food analysis, environmental analysis and much more. Precious metals and gemstones are also accurately analysed with this.
 
X-rays are a type of electromagnetic wave similar to visible light, but with an extremely short wavelength. Compared to normal electromagnetic waves, X-rays pass easily through material and become stronger as the atomic number of the material they pass through decreases. X-ray fluorescence analysis is a method that uses characteristic X-rays (fluorescent X-rays) generated when X-rays irradiate an object.

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